The genome of Theobroma cacao.


‘Theobroma cacao L. is a diploid tree fruit species (2n = 2x = 20 (ref. 1)) endemic to the South American rainforests. Cocoa was domesticated approximately 3,000 years ago2 in Central America3. The Criollo cocoa variety, having a nearly unique and homozygous genotype, was among the first to be cultivated4. Criollo is now one of the two cocoa varieties providing fine flavor chocolate.

However, due to its poor agronomic performance and disease susceptibility, more vigorous hybrids created with foreign (Forastero) genotypes have been introduced. These hybrids, named Trinitario, are now widely cultivated5. Here we report the sequence of a Belizean Criollo plant6.

Consumers have shown an increased interest for high-quality chocolate, and……….’




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